Ch. 9-10 The West

Updated: Mar 26, 2019

Author: Yingying Zhao, et al.

Chapter 9.2-10.2 Review

A - Oregon Territory 1846

B - Mexican Cession 1848

C - Gadsden Purchase 1853

D - Texas Annexation 1845 E - Louisiana Purchase 1803

F - Northwest Ordinance 1787

G - Revolutionary War/Treaty of Paris 1783

H- Adams-Onis Treaty 1821

Westward Expansion (Land Claims)

Oregon Territory 1846

  • President Polk’s slogan “54-40 or fight”

  • decides he doesn’t want to fight a two front war, negotiates with Britain for 49 parallel

Mexican Cession 1848

  • Land gained from the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  • MX gives up land claims to U.S.

Gadsden Purchase 1853

  • U.S. agrees to pay MX $10 million

  • Land would be used for railroads and stuff

Texas Annexation 1845

  • TX becomes a slave state near the end of 1845

Louisiana Purchase 1803

  • Negotiated with Napoleon after he felt discouraged because Haitian revolution

  • Kansas - Nebraska Act (1854)

Northwest Ordinance 1787

  • Banned slavery in the Northwest territory

Southwest Ordinance 1790 (not on map)

  • Jefferson drafted it to ban slavery after 1808, Congress dropped this part, no limit on slavery

Missouri Compromise 1820

  • MO enters the union as a slave state, 36-30 line

  • MA/ME enters the union as a free state

Relevant Prezzes:

  • Andrew Jackson (1828-1836)

  • James Polk (1845-1849)

  • Was a pro-slavery expansionist

  • Agreed with southerners that expansion was important b/c cotton depleted their soil

  • “54-40 or fight!”

  • Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)

  • Whig who owned slaves


1820- Missouri Compromise

1821- Mexico wins independence!!!

  • Felt weak against the strong U.S. so they wanted TX to be their buffer zone

1834- Whig Party founded by Henry Clay

1836- Texas wins independence and becomes a nation-state (“lone star republic”)

  • From 1836 to 1846- Border war between TX and MX

  • Santa Anna- evil salty dictator that was into the whole brutality/authoritarian rule thing

1845- TX enters the union as a slave state

1846- Oregon Treaty w/ British (hey guys sharing is caring k? plus polk don’t wanna fight britain)

  • Wilmot Proviso (David Wilmot): law that banned slavery in any lands won from MX

  • passed in House of Reps but the Senate was like naw bish, continued like this for years

1848- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  • MX gives up the northern 3rd of their land to the U.S.

  • U.S. pays $15 million dolla dolla bills y'all

  • Gold rush starts this year and lasts until 1855

1850- Compromise of 1850 (explained later)

1853- Gadsden purchase

  • United States paid Mexico 10 million for a portion of Mexico so they could build a railroad that went through the whole country

1854- Kansas Nebraska Act

  • popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska to determine whether or not slavery would be allowed

  • Not actually written in the act but it was implied that Nebraska would be a free and Kansas would be a slave state


Popular Sovereignty- Decision is left to the peeps of a state to make a decision (on whether or not slavery would be allowed there)

Moral Suasion- Using morality/highlighting issues on a moral level to persuade someone into agreeing with you

Manifest Destiny- The idea that God was on the side of western expansion; God intended for western progress/expansion to happen


Personal Liberty Laws- States given the power to arrest slave catchers for kidnapping (in their state)

Interposition- A state has the power to nullify a federal law (depending on the scenario) in their state only if they see it as unconstitutional, a state makes a law that interferes with a federal law

John Calhoun (SC)- “Slavery is a positive good”

Senator Charles Sumner (MA)- “Lords of the Loom vs Lords of the Lash”

  • Lords of Loom - factory owners in the North

  • Lords of Lash - plantation owners in the South

Thomas Seward (NY)- “There is a higher law than the constitution!!”

Harriet Tubman- Known as “Black Moses” for leading her people out of slavery

Junipero Serra- son of a bitch from Spain who led all the missions that converted the Native Americans to Catholicism

  • Natives were an easy target because they were a more “docile” group who were easy to conquer and add to spanish population


  • Three Fifths Compromise:

  • One of the three references to slavery in the Constitution

  • Fugitive Slave Law:

  • Part of the compromise of 1850

  • Main parts

  • Passive voice (in the version from 1793) didn’t indicate who was in charge of returning runaways back to their masters;

  • Congress was high key pushing the issue under the rug

  • Compromise of 1850:

  • Newer/stricter Fugitive Slave Act (said that all CITIZENS were responsible for returning runaway slaves to their masters and other stuff)

  • CA becomes a free state (mainly due to the gold rush)

  • Slavery is decided by popular sovereignty in UT and NM territories becuz DEMOCRACY!!!!!!!

  • Slave TRADE/domestic trade ends in Washington D.C. but slavery itself does not

  • TX gives up NM claim because they got a 10 million $ bribe

  • Missouri Compromise 1820:

  • Missouri enters the Union as a slave state, Massachusetts and Maine enter as free states

  • Established 36°30’ line (all states above/north of it are free, all states below/south of it are slave states)

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 (Stephen Douglas):

  • High key nullified the Missouri Compromise b/c Kansas/Nebraska territories were allowed to enforce slavery depending on popular sovereignty

  • Potential for the balance of representation in senate to be overturned (oopsie)

Reading: Compromise by Lowell

  • Compromise should between good and evil but is instead conspiracy between evil and greed

  • Given up, fight against slavery is already lost

  • Freedom is locked out of her own home :((((((


  • Manifest Destiny (Western Expansion, God says we should spread and kick others out)

  • Angel moving west bringing light, communication lines and railroad

  • Storm going away

  • Chasing Natives away

#USHistory1 #Groome

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