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The Civil War

Updated: Mar 26, 2019

Author: Yingying Zhao, et al.


CIVIL WAR STUDY GUIDE: CH. 11

Slavery

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)- nullified the Missouri Compromise of 1820; repealed the 36-30 line

  • Dred Scott Case (1856)-

  • “Former” slave Dred Scott and his master move up north, where slavery is supposedly outlawed

  • Scott tries to sue for his freedom, declaring so, since this free state was now his new home

  • Outcomes of Dred Scott Case: slaves have no rights, property rights of slaveowners must be maintained, declared Missouri Compromise unconstitutional

  • Ruled the 36-30 line unconstitutional

Political Turmoil

  • Bleeding Kansas (1854 - 1861)

  • Charles Sumner and his “Crimes Against Kansas” speech (May 20, 1856)

  • attacked/caned by Preston Brooks two days later

  • brook’s supporters a) re elected him and b) SENT HIM NEW CANES because they thirsty for violence™ “boy oh boy do i love me some violence™ against my political opponents!!”

People

  • John C. Breckinridge - Lincoln’s Southern Democratic opponent in 1860

  • the split of the democratic party was the reason for Lincoln’s election, without that split vote from democratic voters, he would have lost

  • John Brown - extreme abolitionist

  • “I consecrate my life to the destruction of slavery”

  • murdered five pro slavery men, proceeded to escape

  • tried to liberate slaves by raiding armory from Harper’s Ferry

  • Frederick Douglass- black, educated abolitionist; former slave; really crazy hair (relatable)

  • mad because slaves couldn't fight originally

  • Robert E. Lee (VA) - commander in Confederate army

  • Was a part of the whole Harper’s Ferry scenario

  • Ulysses S. Grant - commander in Union Army, ruthless, believer in total war

  • Lincoln said of him “I cannot replace him, he fights”

  • Abraham Lincoln- 16th president of the U.S. who was mainly concerned about preserving the Union instead of slavery

  • William Seward - Lincoln’s bro-mantic secretary of state (BROOOMANCE! LITERALLY JOE BIDEN AND OBAMA)

  • I know hes dead because he would be the first person to visit me” haha nope because hes DEAD ripripriprip

  • Edwin Stanton - Lincoln’s Secretary of War

  • McClellan - cautious military leader who was eventually replaced by Grant because he was too cautious and kind of a screw up honestly like he failed just about everything

  • Jefferson Davis - President of CSA

  • George Meade - leader of Army of the Potomac

  • General George Pickett - extremely inexperienced fancypants general who was all excited bc he had this ‘important job’

  • Engineered the failed “Pickett’s Charge” at Gettysburg, results in many Confederate casualties

  • “lol guys lets just march in an open field so the Union army can kill us”

  • later got all mad at Lee and said “I AINT GOT NOT MORE MEN IM DONE”

  • Union: lol bye felicia

  • William Tecumseh Sherman

  • Leads troops from Tennessee/Georgia border to Savannah GA(hhhhh)

  • engaged in total war - harmed civilians, burned down towns

  • used the land he captured to give to freed slaves,

  • Special Order 15 - origin of the phrase “40 acres and a mule”

  • Ambrose Burnside - replaced McClellan

  • Roger B. Taney - Supreme Court Chief Justice during the Dred Scott case

  • slaveowner

Plans/Strategies/Advantages

  • Union was industrial, had more people, technologically advanced

  • Confeds had psychological advantage

  • They didn’t have to beat the Union, just had to outlast them

  • more confeds wanted to go to war then union peeps who were just like is okie south can leave

  • Union was (eventually) willing to let slaves and free blacks fight

  • Confeds may not have had any of the fancy industrialism but THEY HAD COTTON

  • this cotton, in the end, got them nothing because they couldn't manage the labor to support it when their slaves were freed

  • Anaconda Plan (Union) - proposed by Winfield Scott (the guy who struggled to get on his horse like honestly same)

  • Blockade southern ports so that the south loses income/supply

  • Move toward the Mississippi river and split the Confeds in two

  • Peninsular Campaign - FAIL

  • McClellan tries to lead troops to attack Richmond along the southern peninsula of VA

  • never reaches Richmond due to sucking at war

Major battles of the Civil War and dates:

1861- Battle of Bull Run, Confederacy wins

  • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson is the hero, the rebel yell is first heard

  • changed expectations about how long the war would last

1862 - Union wins at Shiloh and Antietam

1863 - Emancipation Proclamation and defeats confederacy at Gettysburg (July 1-3) and Vicksburg (June 4)

April 9 1865 - Lee surrenders

April 14 1865 - Lincoln gets assassinated by John Wilkes Booth

Timeline of Civil War

1860-

  • November: Lincoln is elected

  • Wins less than 40% of the vote

  • December: South Carolina declares secession + six other states secede

1861 -

  • March 4: First Inaugural Address

  • “I can’t screw with slavery but I’m gonna keep the union in one piece”

  • Mid April: Ft. Sumter falls (Confederate win)

  • Leads to Lincoln calling for 75,000 troops to defend D.C.

  • April 19: Battle of Baltimore

  • first fatalities of the war

  • May: Lincoln suspends habeas corpus (which is odd, since this was supposed to be the job of the legislative branch during wartime/rebellion etc)

  • Habeas Corpus - people should know what they're in jail for binch

  • July: First Battle of Bull Run (Confederate win)

  • Lincoln fires McDowell and replaces him with McClellan

1862- Midterm Elections

  • February: Ft. Henry (Union win)

  • February: Ft. Donelson (Union win)

  • Grant earns the nickname “Unconditional Surrender Grant”

  • April: Shiloh, had 25,000 Union casualties and damages Grant’s reputation (Union win)

  • April 25 - May 1: Farragut captures New Orleans

  • June: Peninsular Campaign/Seven Days Battle, McClellan attempts to take Richmond but ultimately fails

  • Early July: Lincoln drafts Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

  • July 17: Congress passes Militia Act which allows African Americans to fight

  • August 19: Greeley’s “Prayer of 20 Millions” + Lincoln’s response

  • August: Second Battle of Bull Run (Confederate win)

  • September 17: Battle of Antietam (Union win)

  • first battle to take place on Union soil

  • bloodiest single day battle in US history

  • September 22: Lincoln announces Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

  • November: Midterm Elections, Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation to keep Republican control of Congress

1863

  • January 1: Emancipation Proclamation takes effect

  • May 22: Grant places Vicksburg under siege

  • July 1-3: Battle of Gettysburg

  • Turning point of the war

  • all the men who died here were very literally buried in lee’s front yar

  • kinda petty guys

  • July 4: Grant wins Vicksburg

  • Union gains control of the MS river

  • July 13-16: New York Draft Riots

  • working class people get mad at congress (justifiably) because it passes an act saying that you can pay your way out of the draft ($300) and they couldnt afford that so they rioted (unjustifiably) and among other things, burned down a black orphanage

1864 - Election year

  • Lincoln names Grant the total Union commander

  • April: Fort Pillow Massacre

  • massacre of African-American troops

  • May to December: March to the Sea

  • splits CSA in two

  • November: Lincoln is reelected

  • Runs against McClellan, wins 45% of the popular vote but 212/233 votes from the electoral college

1865

  • January 31: Congress approves Thirteenth Amendment, sends to states to ratify

  • Amendment banning slavery forever

  • March 4: Second Inaugural Address

  • April 9: Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House, Virginia

  • April 14: Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth

  • December 6: Thirteenth Amendment ratified

Civil War Amendments:

  • 13th - 1865, abolished slavery

  • 14th - 1868, equal protection

  • 15th - 1870, African American men can vote

Racial Inequalities:

  • White soldiers made $13 a month, black soldiers made $10 a month minus $3 for their uniform

  • 180,000 African Americans fight in the war, 70,000 are killed

  • 700,000 people are killed in the whole war, so 10% of the dead are black

#USHistory1 #Groome